Skip to content

Lactobacillus Acidophilus And Bulgaricus Classification Essay

Lactobacillus is a genus of Gram-positive, facultative anaerobic or microaerophilic, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacteria.[1] They are a major part of the lactic acid bacteria group (i.e. they convert sugars to lactic acid). In humans, they constitute a significant component of the microbiota at a number of body sites, such as the digestive system, urinary system, and genital system. In women of European ancestry, Lactobacillus species are normally a major part of the vaginal microbiota.[2][3][4]Lactobacillus forms biofilms in the vaginal and gut microbiota, allowing them to persist during harsh environmental conditions and maintain ample populations.[5]Lactobacillus exhibits a mutualistic relationship with the human body as it protects the host against potential invasions by pathogens, and in turn, the host provides a source of nutrients.[6]Lactobacillus is the most common probiotic found in food such as yogurt, and it is diverse in its application to maintain human well-being as it can help treat diarrhea, vaginal infections and skin disorders such as eczema.[7]

Metabolism[edit]

Many lactobacilli operate using homofermentative metabolism (they produce only lactic acid from sugars), and some species use heterofermentative metabolism (they can produce either alcohol or lactic acid from sugars).[8] They are aerotolerant despite the complete absence of a respiratory chain.[9][10] This aerotolerance is manganese-dependent and has been explored (and explained) in Lactobacillus plantarum.[11] Many species of this genus do not require iron for growth and have an extremely high hydrogen peroxide tolerance.[citation needed]

Genome[edit]

The genomes of Lactobacillus are highly variable, ranging in size from 1.2 to 3.3 Mb (megabases). Accordingly, the number of protein-coding genes ranges from 1,100 to about 3,200 genes.[16]

Lactobacillus contains a wealth of compound microsatellites in the coding region of the genome, which are imperfect and have variant motifs.[17]

Taxonomy[edit]

The genus Lactobacillus currently contains over 180 species and encompasses a wide variety of organisms.[18] The genus is polyphyletic, with the genus Pediococcus dividing the L. casei group, and the species L. acidophilus, L. salivarius, and L. reuteri being representatives of three distinct subclades. The genus Paralactobacillus falls within the L. salivarius group. In recent years, other members of the genus Lactobacillus (formerly known as the Leuconostoc branch of Lactobacillus) have been reclassified into the genera Atopobium, Carnobacterium, Weissella, Oenococcus, and Leuconostoc. More recently, the Pediococcus species P. dextrinicus has been reclassified as a Lactobacillus species.[19] According to metabolism, Lactobacillus species can be divided into three groups:

  • Obligately homofermentative (group I) including:
  • Facultatively heterofermentative (group II) including:
  • Obligately heterofermentative (group III) including:

Human health[edit]

Vaginal tract[edit]

The female genital tract is one of the principal colonisation sites for human microbiota, and there is interest in the relationship between the composition of these bacteria and human health, with a domination by a single species being correlated with general welfare and good outcomes in pregnancy. In around 70% of women, a Lactobacillus species is dominant, although that has been found to vary between American women of European origin and those of African origin, the latter group tending to have more diverse vaginal microbiota. Similar differences have also been identified in comparisons between Belgian and Tanzanian women.[2][3][4]

Interactions with other pathogens[edit]

Lactobacillus species produce hydrogen peroxide which inhibits the growth and virulence of the fungal pathogen Candida albicansin vitro and in vivo.[20][21] In vitro studies have also shown that Lactobacillus sp. reduce the pathogenicity of C. albicans through the production of organic acids and certain metabolites.[22] Both the presence of metabolites, such as sodium butyrate, and the decrease in environmental pH caused by the organic acids reduce the growth of hypha in C. albicans, which reduces its pathogenicity. [22]Lactobacillus sp. also reduce the pathogenicity of C. albicans by reducing C. albicans biofilm formation.[22] Biofilm formation is reduced by both the competition from Lactobacillus sp., and the formation of defective biofilms which is linked to the reduced hypha growth mentioned earlier. [22] On the other hand, following antibiotic therapy, certain Candida species can suppress the regrowth of Lactobacillus sp. at body sites where they cohabitate, such as in the gastrointestinal tract.[20][21]

In addition to its effects on C. albicans, Lactobacillus sp. also interact with other pathogens. For example, Lactobacillus reuteri can inhibit the growth of many different bacterial species by using glycerol to produce the antimicrobial substance called reuterin. [23] Another example is Lactobacillus salivarius, which interacts with many pathogens through the production of salivaricin B, a bacteriocin.[24]

Probiotics[edit]

Lactobacillus species administered in combination with other probiotics benefits cases of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), although the extent of efficacy is still uncertain.[25] The probiotics help treat IBS by returning homeostasis when the gut microbiota experiences unusually high levels of opportunistic bacteria.[6] In addition, Lactobacillus species can be administered as probiotics during cases of infection by the ulcer-causing bacterium Helicobacter pylori.[26] Helicobacter pylori is linked to cancer, and antibiotic resistance impedes the success of current antibiotic-based eradication treatments.[26] When Lactobacillus probiotics are administered along with the treatment as an adjuvant, its efficacy is substantially increased and side effects may be lessened.[26] Also, Lactobacillus is used to help control urogenital and vaginal infections, such as bacterial vaginosis (BV). Lactobacillus produce bacteriocins to suppress pathogenic growth of certain bacteria,[27] as well as lactic acid and H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide). Lactic acid lowers the vaginal pH to around 4.5 or less, hampering the survival of other bacteria, and H2O2 reestablishes the normal bacterial flora and normal vaginal pH. [27] In children, Lactobacillus strains such as L. rhamnosus are associated with a reduction of atopic eczema, also known as dermatitis, due to anti-inflammatory cytokines secreted by this probiotic bacteria.[6]

Oral health[edit]

Some Lactobacillus species have been associated with cases of dental caries (cavities). Lactic acid can corrode teeth, and the Lactobacillus count in saliva has been used as a "caries test" for many years. Lactobacilli characteristically cause existing carious lesions to progress, especially those in coronal caries. The issue is, however, complex, as recent studies show probiotics can allow beneficial lactobacilli to populate sites on teeth, preventing streptococcal pathogens from taking hold and inducing dental decay. The scientific research of lactobacilli in relation to oral health is a new field and only a few studies and results have been published.[28][29] Some studies have provided evidence of certain Lactobacilli which can be a probiotic for oral health.[30] Some species, but not all, show evidence in defense to dental caries.[30] Due to these studies, there have been applications of incorporating such probiotics in chewing gum and lozenges.[30] There is also evidence of certain Lactobacilli that are beneficial in the defense of periodontal disease such as gingivitis and periodontitis.[30]

Food production[edit]

Some Lactobacillus species are used as starter cultures in industry for controlled fermentation in the production of yogurt, cheese, sauerkraut, pickles, beer, cider, kimchi, cocoa, kefir, and other fermented foods, as well as animal feeds. The antibacterial and antifungal activity of Lactobacillus species rely on production of bacteriocins and low molecular weight compounds that inhibits these microorganisms.[31][32]

Sourdough bread is made either spontaneously, by taking advantage of the bacteria naturally present in flour, or by using a "starter culture", which is a symbiotic culture of yeast and lactic acid bacteria growing in a water and flourmedium. The bacteria metabolize sugars into lactic acid, which lowers the pH of their environment, creating a signature "sourness" associated with yogurt, sauerkraut, etc.

In many traditional pickling processes, vegetables are submerged in brine, and salt-tolerant Lactobacillus species feed on natural sugars found in the vegetables. The resulting mix of salt and lactic acid is a hostile environment for other microbes, such as fungi, and the vegetables are thus preserved—remaining edible for long periods.

Lactobacilli, especially L. casei and L. brevis, are some of the most common beer spoilage organisms. They are, however, essential to the production of sour beers such as Belgian lambics and American wild ales, giving the beer a distinct tart flavor.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^Makarova, K.; Slesarev, A.; Wolf, Y.; Sorokin, A.; Mirkin, B.; Koonin, E.; Pavlov, A.; Pavlova, N.; et al. (October 2006). "Comparative genomics of the lactic acid bacteria". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 103 (42): 15611–6. doi:10.1073/pnas.0607117103. PMC 1622870. PMID 17030793. 
  2. ^ abPetrova, Mariya I.; Lievens, Elke; Malik, Shweta; Imholz, Nicole; Lebeer, Sarah (2015). "Lactobacillus species as biomarkers and agents that can promote various aspects of vaginal health". Frontiers in Physiology. 6. doi:10.3389/fphys.2015.00081. ISSN 1664-042X. 
  3. ^ abMa, Bing; Forney, Larry J.; Ravel, Jacques (20 September 2012). "Vaginal Microbiome: Rethinking Health and Disease". Annual Review of Microbiology. 66 (1): 371–389. doi:10.1146/annurev-micro-092611-150157. ISSN 0066-4227. PMC 3780402. PMID 22746335. 
  4. ^ abFettweis, JM; Brooks, JP; Serrano, MG; Sheth, NU; Girerd, PH; Edwards, DJ; Strauss, JF; Jefferson, KK; Buck, GA (2014). "Differences in vaginal microbiome in African American women versus women of European ancestry". Microbiology. 160 (Pt 10): 2272–82. doi:10.1099/mic.0.081034-0. PMC 4178329. PMID 25073854. 
  5. ^Salas-Jara, Maria Jose; Alejandra Ilabaca; Marco Vega; Apolinaria García (September 20, 2016). "Biofilm Forming Lactobacillus: New Challenges for the Development of Probiotics". NCBI. 4 (3): 35. doi:10.3390/microorganisms4030035. PMC 5039595. PMID 27681929. 
  6. ^ abcMartin, Rebeca; Sylvie Miquel; Jonathan Ulmer; Noura Kechaou; Philippe Langella; Luis G Bermúdez-Humarán (July 23, 2013). "Role of commensal and probiotic bacteria in human health: a focus on inflammatory bowel disease". NCBI. 12 (71). doi:10.1186/1475-2859-12-71. PMC 3726476. PMID 23876056. 
  7. ^Inglin, Raffael. "PhD Thesis - Combined Phenotypic-Genotypic Analyses of the Genus Lactobacillus and Selection of Cultures for Biopreservation of Fermented Food". ETHZ research collection. ETH Zurich. doi:10.3929/ethz-b-000214904. Retrieved 3 January 2018. 
  8. ^Zaunmüller, T.; Eichert, M.; Richter, H.; Unden, G. (September 2006). "Variations in the energy metabolism of biotechnologically relevant heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria during growth on sugars and organic acids". Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. 72 (3): 421–429. doi:10.1007/s00253-006-0514-3. 
  9. ^Archibald, Frederick S.; Fridovich, Irwin (June 1981). "Manganese, Superoxide Dismutase, and Oxygen Tolerance in Some Lactic Acid Bacteria". Journal of Bacteriology. 146 (3): 928–936. Retrieved October 5, 2017. 
  10. ^Smalla, Pamela LC; Watermanb, Scott R (June 1998). "Acid stress, anaerobiosis and gadCB: lessons from Lactococcus lactis and Escherichia coli". Trends in Microbiology. 6 (6): 214–216. doi:10.1016/S0966-842X(98)01285-2. 
  11. ^Archibald, Frederick S.; Fridovich, Irwin (June 1981). "Manganese, Superoxide Dismutase, and Oxygen Tolerance in Some Lactic Acid Bacteria". Journal of Bacteriology. 146 (3): 928–936. Retrieved October 5, 2017. 
  12. ^ abcdefghiZhang LS, Davies SS (April 2016). "Microbial metabolism of dietary components to bioactive metabolites: opportunities for new therapeutic interventions". Genome Med. 8 (1): 46. doi:10.1186/s13073-016-0296-x. PMC 4840492. PMID 27102537.  
    Table 2: Microbial metabolites: their synthesis, mechanisms of action, and effects on health and disease
    Figure 1: Molecular mechanisms of action of indole and its metabolites on host physiology and disease
  13. ^Wikoff WR, Anfora AT, Liu J, Schultz PG, Lesley SA, Peters EC, Siuzdak G (March 2009). "Metabolomics analysis reveals large effects of gut microflora on mammalian blood metabolites". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106 (10): 3698–3703. doi:10.1073/pnas.0812874106. PMC 2656143. PMID 19234110.  
    IPA metabolism diagram
  14. ^"3-Indolepropionic acid". Human Metabolome Database. University of Alberta. Retrieved 12 October 2015.  
  15. ^Chyan YJ, Poeggeler B, Omar RA, Chain DG, Frangione B, Ghiso J, Pappolla MA (July 1999). "Potent neuroprotective properties against the Alzheimer beta-amyloid by an endogenous melatonin-related indole structure, indole-3-propionic acid". J. Biol. Chem. 274 (31): 21937–21942. doi:10.1074/jbc.274.31.21937. PMID 10419516.  
  16. ^Mendes-Soares, Helena; Suzuki, Haruo; Hickey, Roxana J.; Forney, Larry J. (2014-04-01). "Comparative Functional Genomics of Lactobacillus spp. Reveals Possible Mechanisms for Specialization of Vaginal Lactobacilli to Their Environment". Journal of Bacteriology. 196 (7): 1458–1470. doi:10.1128/JB.01439-13. ISSN 0021-9193. PMC 3993339. PMID

lactobacillus acidophilus and bulgaricus

Generic Name:lactobacillusacidophilus and bulgaricus (LAK toe ba SIL us AS sid OFF il us and bul GAR ik us)
Brand Name:BD Lactinex, Floranex

What is lactobacillus acidophilus and bulgaricus?

Lactobacillus is a bacteria that exists naturally in the body, primarily in the intestines and the vagina. Lactobacillus helps maintain an acidic environment in the body, which can prevent the growth of harmful bacteria. Lactobacillus has been used as a probiotic, or "friendly bacteria."

Acidophilus and bulgaricus (helveticus) are two different types of lactobacillus that are combined in this product.

Lactobacillus acidophilus and bulgaricus has been used as a probiotic to aid in digestion, to prevent diarrhea, and to relieve symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome. Lactobacillus acidophilus and bulgaricus may work by helping the body maintain normal consistency of bacteria in the stomach and intestines.

Lactobacillus acidophilus and bulgaricus has not been approved by the FDA to treat any disease, and it should not be substituted for prescription medications.

Lactobacillus acidophilus and bulgaricus has not been evaluated by the FDA for safety, effectiveness, or purity. All potential risks and/or advantages of lactobacillus acidophilus and bulgaricus may not be known. Additionally, there are no regulated manufacturing standards in place for these compounds. Some marketed herbal supplements have been found to be contaminated with toxic metals or other drugs. Herbal/health supplements should be purchased from a reliable source to minimize the risk of contamination.

Lactobacillus acidophilus and bulgaricus may also have be used for other purposes not listed in this product guide.

Important Information

This product has not been approved by the FDA to treat any disease, and it should not be substituted for prescription medications.

Lactobacillus acidophilus and bulgaricus has not been evaluated by the FDA for safety, effectiveness, or purity. All potential risks and/or advantages of this product may not be known. Additionally, there are no regulated manufacturing standards in place for these compounds. Some marketed herbal supplements have been found to be contaminated with toxic metals or other drugs. Herbal/health supplements should be purchased from a reliable source to minimize the risk of contamination.

You should not use lactobacillus acidophilus and bulgaricus if you are allergic to soy products or if you are lactose intolerant.

To make sure you can safely use lactobacillus acidophilus and bulgaricus, tell your healthcare provider if you have asthma or allergies.

It is not known whether lactobacillus acidophilus and bulgaricus will harm an unborn baby. Do not use this product without medical advice if you are pregnant or breast-feeding a baby.

Do not give any herbal/health supplement to a child without the advice of a doctor.

Before taking this medicine

You should not use lactobacillus acidophilus and bulgaricus if you are allergic to soy products or if you are lactose intolerant.

Ask a doctor, pharmacist, or other healthcare provider if it is safe for you to use this product if you have asthma or allergies.

If you are diabetic, you should know that each packet of lactobacillus acidophilus and bulgaricus granules contains 24 milligrams of sugar. Each tablet contains 12 mg of sugar.

It is not known whether lactobacillus acidophilus and bulgaricus will harm an unborn baby. Do not use this product without medical advice if you are pregnant.

It is not known whether lactobacillus acidophilus and bulgaricus passes into breast milk or if it could harm a nursing baby. Do not use this product without medical advice if you are breast-feeding a baby.

Do not give any herbal/health supplement to a child without the advice of a doctor.

How should I take lactobacillus acidophilus and bulgaricus?

When considering the use of herbal supplements, seek the advice of your doctor. You may also consider consulting a practitioner who is trained in the use of herbal/health supplements.

Do not take more of this product than is directed.

If you choose to take lactobacillus acidophilus and bulgaricus, use it as directed on the package or as directed by your doctor, pharmacist, or other healthcare provider.

Lactobacillus acidophilus and bulgaricus is available in chewable tablet and granule forms. Some dairy products, especially yogurt, also contain lactobacillus acidophilus.

The usual dose of this product is 4 tablets 3 or 4 times per day, or one packet of granules 3 or 4 times per day. Do not use more of this product than is recommended on the label.

Do not use different forms of lactobacillus acidophilus and bulgaricus at the same time, unless your healthcare professional has told you to. You may get too much of this product if you use different forms together.

The lactobacillus acidophilus and bulgaricus chewable tablet must be chewed before you swallow it. Drink a small amount of water, milk, or fruit juice after chewing and swallowing the tablet.

You may add the lactobacillus acidophilus and bulgaricus granules to milk, cereal, or other food.

Store the tablets or granules in the refrigerator, do not freeze.

What happens if I miss a dose?

No information is available about missing a dose of lactobacillus acidophilus and bulgaricus. Consult your doctor, pharmacist, or healthcare provider for instructions if you miss a dose.

What happens if I overdose?

Seek emergency medical attention or call the Poison Help line at 1-800-222-1222.

What should I avoid while taking lactobacillus acidophilus and bulgaricus?

Follow your doctor's instructions about any restrictions on food, beverages, or activity while you are using lactobacillus acidophilus and bulgaricus.

Lactobacillus acidophilus and bulgaricus side effects

Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction:hives; chest tightness, difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Less serious side effects may be more likely, and you may have none at all.

Tell your doctor, pharmacist, herbalist, or other healthcare provider about any unusual or bothersome side effect. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

See also:Side effects (in more detail)

What other drugs will affect lactobacillus acidophilus and bulgaricus?

There may be other drugs that can interact with lactobacillus acidophilus and bulgaricus. Tell your healthcare provider about all the prescription and over-the-counter medications you use. This includes vitamins, minerals, herbal products, and drugs prescribed by other doctors. Do not start using a new medication without telling your healthcare provider.

Next → Side Effects

Where can I get more information?

  • Consult with a licensed healthcare professional before using any herbal/health supplement. Whether you are treated by a medical doctor or a practitioner trained in the use of natural medicines/supplements, make sure all your healthcare providers know about all of your medical conditions and treatments.
  • Remember, keep this and all other medicines out of the reach of children, never share your medicines with others, and use this medication only for the indication prescribed.
  • Disclaimer: Every effort has been made to ensure that the information provided by Cerner Multum, Inc. ('Multum') is accurate, up-to-date, and complete, but no guarantee is made to that effect. Drug information contained herein may be time sensitive. Multum information has been compiled for use by healthcare practitioners and consumers in the United States and therefore Multum does not warrant that uses outside of the United States are appropriate, unless specifically indicated otherwise. Multum's drug information does not endorse drugs, diagnose patients or recommend therapy. Multum's drug information is an informational resource designed to assist licensed healthcare practitioners in caring for their patients and/or to serve consumers viewing this service as a supplement to, and not a substitute for, the expertise, skill, knowledge and judgment of healthcare practitioners. The absence of a warning for a given drug or drug combination in no way should be construed to indicate that the drug or drug combination is safe, effective or appropriate for any given patient. Multum does not assume any responsibility for any aspect of healthcare administered with the aid of information Multum provides. The information contained herein is not intended to cover all possible uses, directions, precautions, warnings, drug interactions, allergic reactions, or adverse effects. If you have questions about the drugs you are taking, check with your doctor, nurse or pharmacist.

Copyright 1996-2012 Cerner Multum, Inc. Version: 1.01.

Date modified: March 06, 2018
Last reviewed: July 13, 2012

More about lactobacillus acidophilus/lactobacillus bulgaricus

Consumer resources

Other brands:Floranex, BD Lactinex

Related treatment guides