The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between employee retention, job satisfaction, perceived supervisory support and compensation by considering the organizational commitment as mediating variable in pharmaceutical industry in Pakistan. For this purpose, primary data collection method was used. A total of four hundred and fifty (450) questionnaires were sent to employees of six pharmaceutical companies. Out of the total, three hundred and twenty (320) usable questionnaires were included for data analysis. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was carried out by the means of AMOS 18.0 for model testing purpose. The results signify that positive and significance relationship exists between compensation,Supervisory Support, and organizational commitment. The results further conclude that organizational commitment has strong and positive relationship with employee job satisfaction and employee retention.
Key words: Compensation, supervisory support, organizational commitment, employee satisfaction, employee retention.
Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous disorder characterized by the accumulation of acquired genetic alterations in hematopoietic progenitor cells that alter normal mechanisms of self-renewal, and differentiation. Once a rapidly and life fatal disease, the prognosis of AML has improved in the past decades. Recurrent cytogenetic and molecular genetic abnormalities are proven to be of diagnostic and therapeutic value. All cases of AML cannot be explained by the low resolution cytogenetic techniques or biased molecular genetic approaches. Recent advancements in high resolution genomic techniques has allowed detection of additional submicroscopic abnormalities in the AML genome. This study set out to determine the copy number alterations (CNAs) in bone marrow and oral epithelial samples from 08 AML cases by whole genome Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) genotyping using Illumina OmniExpress-12 v1-1 Bead Chips containing 700,000 SNPs. Additionally, using a targeted approach with TaqMan real-time quantitative polymerase reaction (RT-qPCR), we tested for previously reported SNP (rs11554137) in a group of 47 AML patients.
The group of patients comprised of AML-M1 (n=1), M2 (n=5), M4 (n=1) and M5 (n=1), SNP genotyping data analysis identified 13 acquired CNAs in 05 out 08 AML patients. Deletions were more common than amplifications. These CNAs were distributed across all FAB subtypes except AML-M3.AML-M4 subtypes were found to have more CNAs compared to other subtypes. Notably, in three AML-M2 cases4q24 microdeletion was identified. This region spans TET2 gene which is has been shown to cause microdeletions and copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in a patient with diverse myeloid malignancies. Oral epithelial cells from the same patients were negative for the CNAs. Moreover, the 47 patients tested for known SNPs, 4 patients (8.5%) were found positive for rs11554137. SNP (rs11554137) has been reported to be of prognostic importance for overall survival (OS).
The results from this study shows CNAs in regions implicated in myeloid malignancies. The use of high-resolution genomic array identified significant number of CNAs and SNPs which were not previously documented in AML patients in Pakistani population. Further studies dissecting out their role in AML pathogenesis are required.
Disclosures No relevant conflicts of interest to declare.
↵* Asterisk with author names denotes non-ASH members.
- © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology